Chapter 4: The Developing Person

1. To test whether a young child has the concept of object permanence, Piaget would watch whether the child can

a. play with a toy the same way the experimenter plays with it.

b. state that the amount of clay or water stays the same after a distortion of its shape.

c. answer abstract, hypothetical questions about the object.

d. reach around a barrier to get an object that the child no longer sees.

2. In Piaget's terminology, an organized way of interacting with objects in the world is known as

a. a schema.

b. conservation.

c. a moratorium.

d. a phoneme.

3. The order of Piaget's stages of development is:

a. sensorimotor -- formal operations -- concrete operations -- postoperational

b. preoperational -- concrete operations -- formal operations -- sensorimotor

c. concrete operations -- sensorimotor -- preoperational -- formal operations

d. sensorimotor -- preoperational -- concrete operations -- formal operations

4. Which is the first of Piaget's stages of cognitive development -- the one characteristic of infants?

a. the preoperational stage

b. the sensorimotor stage

c. the formal-operations stage

d. the concrete-operations stage

5. Which of Piaget's stages of cognitive development do people reach last (not until age 11 or later)?

a. formal operations

b. sensorimotor

c. concrete operations

d. preoperational

6. According to Piaget, a child who has the concept of conservation understands that

a. the weight and mass of an object stay the same when the shape changes.

b. one should work out a strategy before starting on a complex task.

c. an object continues to exist even when one does not see it.

d. a group of people have to take turns talking to one another and then listening.

7. Kohlberg's theory of moral development has been criticized because

a. different people go through the stages in different orders.

b. many people give good answers to his questions but still behave immorally.

c. only people in the United States and western Europe go through the stages he describes.

d. most people give the same answers to his questions at age 20 as at age 10.

8. Most 10-year-olds' judgments are at Kohlberg's first or second stage. Most 16-year-olds' judgments are

a. still at stage 2.

b. at stage 3.

c. at stage 5.

d. at stage 6.

9. Erik Erikson's ages of development deal with

a. social and emotional development.

b. development of moral reasoning.

c. language development.

d. intellectual development.

10. Erik Erikson's first two stages of social development are

a. initiative versus guilt and integrity versus despair.

b. basic trust versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and doubt.

c. industry versus inferiority and intimacy versus isolation.

d. generativity versus stagnation and initiative versus guilt.