After reading and studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions.
1. What are the five basic issues in human development? Where does each theorist stand on each of these issues?
2. What are the distinct features of Freud's psychoanalytic theory? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the theory?
3. How does Erikson's theory compare to Freud’s theory? What crisis characterizes each of Erickson’s psychosocial stages?
4. What are the distinct features of Skinner's operant conditioning theory and Bandura's social-learning theory? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the learning theories?
5. What is Piaget's basic perspective on cognitive development? What are the strengths and weaknesses of Piaget's theory?
6. What are the essential elements of Vygotsky’s sociocultural perspective and Gottlieb’s evolutionary/epigenetic systems view of development?
7. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the contextual and systems approaches to development?