After reading and studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions.


1. ††††††† What do evolution and species heredity contribute to our understanding of universal patterns of development? What are the basic principles of Darwinís theory of evolution?


2.†††††††† What are the basic workings of individual heredity, including the contributions of genes, chromosomes, the zygote, and the processes of mitosis and meiosis? Note the difference between genotype and phenotype.

3. ††††††† How are traits passed from parents to offspring? What is an example of how a child could inherit a trait through each of the mechanisms?


4.†††††††† What tests are used to screen for genetic abnormalities? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using techniques like these to test for prenatal problems? Name several abnormalities that can currently be detected with prenatal screening.


5. ††††††† What methods are used to assess the influences of heredity and environment on behavioral characteristics? Describe the logic of the methods, as well as strengths and weaknesses of each method.


6. ††††††† How do genes, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental factors contribute to individual differences?


7. ††††††† How do genes and environments contribute to individual differences in intellectual ability, personality and temperament, and psychological disorders?


8.                  What are three ways that genes and environments correlate to influence behavior?