After reading and studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions.


1.         How does development proceed during the prenatal period? How does prenatal behavior of the fetus relate to postnatal behavior of the infant?


2.         How do mother's age, emotional state, and nutrition affect prenatal and neonatal development?


3.         How and when do various teratogens affect the developing fetus?


4.         What is the perinatal environment like? What hazards can occur during the birth process?


5.         What is the birth experience like from the mother's and father's perspectives, and from different cultural perspectives?


6.                  To what extent are the effects of the prenatal and perinatal environments long lasting? What factors influence whether effects are lasting?