I.  What is intelligence?

            Piaget-- focus on universal stages of cognitive development

            Information-processing-- focus on basic cognitive processes in all people

A.  The Psychometric Approach

            1.  Focus on measurement of intelligence (defined as set of traits that characterize


                        2.  Spearman theory-- two-factor theory

                                    intelligence equals general mental ability (g) plus special (s) specific to a


                        3.  Thurstone’s theory--  primary mental abilities

                                    a.  spatial ability

                                    b.  perceptual speed

                                    c.  numerical reasoning

                                    d.  verbal meaning

                                    e.  word fluency

                                    f.  memory

                                    g.  inductive reasoning

                        4.  Horn and Cattell’s theory-- fluid versus crystallized intelligence

                                    a.  fluid intelligence-- use of mind to actively solve problems

                                                i.    verbal analogies, relations among geometric figures

                                                ii.    skills not taught and relatively free of cultural influence

b.      crystallized intelligence--  use of knowledge acquired through

experience general information, word comprehension, numeric abilities

c.       fluid involves using mind in new and flexible ways, crystallized

involves using what one has already learned

                        5.  Consensus on intelligence

                                    a.  top-- general ability factor influences performance on wide variety of


                                    b.  a few broad dimensions that are distinguishable on factor analyses (e.g.,

                                         fluid, crystallized intelligence)

                                    c.  bottom-- specific skills (e.g., spatial discrimination) that impacts

                                         performance on specific task

                        6.  Psychometric theories-- emphasis on intelligence tests that summarize intellect

                             into a single IQ score

                                    critics--  psychometric tests do not fully describe what it means to be


            B.  Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

                        1.  Rejects single IQ model in favor of eight distinct kinds of intelligences

                        2.  Many of the types of intelligence are not found on standard intelligence tests

                                    a.  linguistic-- language skills

                                    b.  logical-mathematical-- abstract thinking

                                    c.  musical-- sensitivity to sound patterns

                                    d.  spatial-- object perception

                                    e.  bodily-kinesthetic-- body movement skills

                                    f.  interpersonal-- social skills

                                    g.  intrapersonal-- understanding one’s own feeling

                                    h.  naturalistic-- world of plants and animals

                        3.  Is not the definitive list of intelligence

                        4.  Savant syndrome-- extraordinary talent in a mentally retarded person

                                                                  a.  Leslie Lemke, blind, retarded, cerebral palsy, but can perfectly imitate


                                    b.  savants cannot be explained by theories emphasizing a “g” (general

                                         intelligence) factor

                        5  Each type of intelligence may have a unique developmental course

                                    a.  music and athletic in childhood

                                    b.  logical-mathematical in later life

                        6.  Distinct intelligences linked to distinctive brain structures

            C.  Sternberg's Triarchic Theory-- Three Subtheory Aspects of Intellectual Behavior

                        1.  Contextual subtheory-- intelligence defined by sociocultural context in which it

                             is displayed

                                    a.  real world “street smarts” an example

                                    b.  intelligent behavior varies by culture and history and time of life span

                                    c.  definition of intelligence in childhood different from definition in


                        2.  Experiential subtheory-- impact of experience

                                    a.  response to novelty requires active conscious information processing

                                                novel tasks best measure of intelligence

                                    b.  automatization-- increased efficiency with practice

                                    c.  cultural bias in intelligence testing-- familiarity of items varies by


                        3.  Componential subtheory-- information-processing components

                                    a.  focus on cognitive components underlying intelligence

                                    b.  focus on how people produce intelligent answers

                        4.  Theory of successful intelligence

                                    a.  intelligence goes beyond traditional idea of doing well in school and

                                         should be defined as doing well in life

                                                i.    intelligent people optimize strengths and minimize weaknesses

                                                ii.    intelligent people select or modify environments to fit them


II.  How is intelligence measured?

            A.  The Stanford-Binet Test

                        Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon

                                    a.  1904 test to identify “dull” French children who might struggle in


                                    b.  description of child's mental age (MA) tied to age-graded test items

                                    c.   Lewis Terman produces American version called the Stanford-Binet

                                          Intelligence Scale (1916)

                                                i.    age-graded  items for ages 3-13

                                                ii.    intelligence quotient scoring system-- IQ = Mental

                                                      Age/Chronological Age x 100

                                                iii.   test norms-- standards of typical performance

                                                iv.   average score on test is 100

            B.  The Wechsler Scales

                        1.  David Wechsler’s intelligence tests across the life span

                        2.  Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)

                        3.  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)    

                        4.  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

                        5.  Generate verbal IQ, performance IQ, and full-scale IQ scores

                                    a.  verbal involves vocabulary, general knowledge, math reasoning

                                    b.  performance is nonverbal (e.g., solve maze, assemble puzzles)

                                    c.  full-scale is combination of verbal and performance

            C.  The Distribution of IQ Scores

                        1.  Normal distribution-- bell-shaped spread around average score

                                    a.  average IQ score is 100

                                    b.  about two-thirds of scores are between 85 and 115

                                    c.  fewer than 3% of scores are below 70

            D. Intelligence testing Today

                        1.  Concern over lack of theory guiding traditional intelligence tests

                                    Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

                                                i.    based on information-processing theory

                                                ii.    focus on how children solve problems

                                                iii.   subscales on ability to integrate pieces of information and

                                                      acquired knowledge

                        2.  Dynamic assessment-- assessment of potential to learn new material versus

                             traditional tests that assess what has been learned

                                    a.  Feuerstein's Learning Potential Assessment Device-- assesses the

                                         ability to learn new things quickly with minimal guidance

                                                use mediator technique like that suggested by Vygotsky

                                    b.  Cognitive Assessment System-- assesses four basic cognitive processes

                                                i.    planning a solution

                                                ii.    attending to relevant information

                                                iii.   simultaneous processing

                                                iv.   processing in specific order

                        3.  Use of IQ scores criticized

                                    a.  single-score does not do justice to complexity of human intelligence

                                    b.  measures performance at one given point in time

                                                i.    not always good predictor of intellectual competence

                                                ii.    cannot explain how highly intelligent people fail


III.       The infant

            A.  Developmental Quotients—Intelligence Tests Used on Young Children

                        Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1-42 months)

                                    a.  motor scale, mental scale, infant behavioral record

                                    b.  developmental quotient (DQ)-- performance compared to norms based

                                         on performance of a large group of infants of the same age

            B.  Infant Intelligence and Later Intelligence

                        1.  Low correlation between DQ scores and later IQ scores

                        2.  Explanations for this lack of relationship

                                    a.  tests tap qualitatively different domains

                                    b.  infant intelligence based on universal maturation

                                                infants “straying from path” are brought back to normal

                        3.  Are some relationships between measures of infant attention and later IQ     

                                    speed of habituation, preference for novelty, reaction time

                                                 “smart” infant as a speedy processor


IV.  The child

            A.  How Stable are IQ Scores During Childhood?

                        1.  IQ scores are fairly stable starting at about age 4

                                    high short-term predictability

                        2.  Correlations reflect groups of children, not individuals

                                    within group stability but individual variation
                                                one study one-third showed changes of 30 points

                        3.  Changes reflect IQ scores not necessarily intellectual ability

            B.  Causes of Gains and Losses

                        1.  Fluctuation greatest if child in unstable environment

                        2.  Cumulative-deficit hypothesis-- IQ scores of children from impoverished

                             environments decrease as negative effects accumulate

                                    effects worse if poverty and low intellectually functioning parents

V.  The adolescent

            A.  Continuity Between Childhood and Adulthood

                        1.  Rapid intellectual growth in early adolescence, then levels off

                                    a.  growth may be due to brain development

                                    b.  Piaget’s formal operations stage

                        2.  Increasing stability of individual differences

            B.  IQ and School Achievement

                        1.  IQ is good predictor of academic achievement

                                    a.  predictions strongest in childhood and adolescence

                                    b.  IQ scores predict high school grades, but not college grades

                                    c.  IQ scores do not reflect habits, motivations, and interests


VI.  The adult

            A.  IQ and Occupational Success

                        1.  Some occupations require more intellectual ability than others (more


                                    average IQ scores of workers increase with prestige of work

                        2.  Performance on the job also related to IQ

                                    intellectually capable adults do their jobs better

                        3.  Motivation and environmental factors also play role

            B.  IQ and Health

                        1.  People who score higher on intelligence tests tend to live healthier and longer

                             lives may be related to socioeconomic status

                        2.  Monitor health may require same skills as doing well on intelligence tests

                                    intelligent people with diabetes learn more about the disorder

            C.  Change in IQ with Age

                        1.  Depends on type of research design

                                    a.  cross-sectional design-- decline in later life (Kaufman)

                                    b.  longitudinal design-- some abilities decline in later life (Kaufman)

                                                verbal IQ stable, performance peak 20-24

                                    c.  sequential design (Schaie)

                                                i.    when a person is born has great impact on intellect

                                                ii.    young cohorts outscore older cohorts on most tests

                                                iii.   older cohorts outscore younger cohorts on tests of numeric


                                                iv.   fluid (skills to solve novel problems) shows decline

                                                v.   crystallized (general knowledge) shows increase

                                    d.  IQ effects mediated by level of familiarity

                                    e.  performance on speeded tests declines more

                                    f.  declines most dramatic until late 60s or 70s

                        2.  Patterns of aging decline differ for different abilities

                        3.  Declines are not universal

            D.  Predictors of Decline

                        1.  Poor health

                                    a.  chronic illness related to intellectual decline

                                    b.  terminal drop-- rapid loss of IQ within a few years of death

                        2.  Unstimulating lifestyle

                                    a.  disengagement has negative impact on intellect

                                    b.  married couple provide intellectual stimulation for each other

                                    c.  “use it or lose it!”-- more you use intellect, the less the loss

            E.  Potential for Wisdom

                        1.  Wisdom-- expert knowledge in fundamental pragmatic of life

                        2.  Sternberg’s aspects of a wise person

                                    a.  rich factual knowledge

                                    b.  rich procedural knowledge

                                    c.  life-span contextual perspective

                                    d.  relativism of values and life priorities

                                    e.  recognition and management of uncertainty

                        3.  Related more to expertise than age

                        4.  Research does not yet support common belief of wisdom in old age

                        5.  Wisdom best thought of as combination of intelligence, personality, and

                              cognitive style factors


VII.  Factors that influence IQ scores

            A. Genes

                        1.  Identical twins IQ scores more similar than fraternal IQ scores

                        2.  Adopted children’s IQ (once they reach adolescence) more similar to biological

                             parents than adoptive parent

                        3.  Effects of environment unique to individual

                        4.  IQ can be influenced by nutrition

            B.  Home Environment

                        1.  Environmental risk factors predict lower IQ scores

                        2.  HOME inventory developed by Caldwell and Bradley assess various aspects

                             of environment

                                    parental stimulation and responsiveness is critical

                        3.  Gene/environment interaction a key

                                    a.  best predictor of early IQ (age 2) is mothers IQ

                                    b.  by age 4 quality of environment as important as mom’s IQ

                                    c.  high IQ moms may provide more stimulating environment

            C.  Family Size and Birth Order

                        1.  Birth order thought to highly influence development

                                    a.  research dilution model (only so many resources to go around)

                                                first-borns get more attention that later born children

                                    b.  research data on birth order effect mixed

                        2.  Family size may be predictor (larger family-less intelligence)

                                    cannot tell why (cause-effect?)

            D.  Social-Class Differences

                        1.  Flynn effect-- 20th century increases in average IQ

                                    a.  clearer from measures of fluid intelligence

                                                i.    not necessarily the result of speedier processing

                                                ii.    improvements may be the result of changes in nutrition,

                                                      education, and living conditions

                        2.  Adoption from lower-class into middle-class homes associated with higher IQ

                        3.  Social class differences may reflect poorer home environments (e.g. less

                             stimulating) provided by parents

            E.  Racial and Ethnic Differences

                        1.  Authors of The Bell Curve argue for genetic basis for racial differences in


                        2.  Some racial and ethnic difference in IQ scores do exist but could be do to

                             several factors

                        3.  Culture bias-- possible bias in test questions

                                    a.  lack of English skills may impact IQ test scores

                                    b.  level of cultural exposure may negatively impact IQ scores

                                    c.  culture-fair IQ tests included familiar and unfamiliar items from all

                                         ethnic or social groups

                                    d.  IQ scores predict school success for most populations (including

                                         minority population)

                        4.  Motivational factors-- minority students not trying as hard

                                    a.  may be due to anxiety/resistance to judgment by whites

                                    b.  negative stereotypes of one’s own group may decrease scores

                                                may be especially a problem for African American students

                                    c.  stereotype threat-- fear that one will be judged by the qualities

                                         associates with negative stereotypes

d.      positive stereotypes about a group can increase performance for

members of that group (including racial minorities and women)

                                    e.  effects of stereotype threat may be reduced by providing students with

                                         a mentor

                        5.  Genetic influences

                                    a.  heated debate in psychology about role of genetics in intelligence

                                    b.  within group differences cannot be equated to between-group


                                    c.  no direct evidence that race differences in test scores due to genetics

                        6.  Environmental influences

                                    a.  adoption research supports critical impact of environment

                                                placement in advantaged homes positive impact on lower-income

                                                African American children

                                    b.  intellectually stimulating environment a key to explaining “racial

                                         differences” in IQ scores

                                    c.  IQ gap between blacks and whites may be decreasing


VIII.  The extremes of intelligence

            A.  Mental Retardation

                        1.  IQ score below 70-75 and limitations in meeting age-appropriate expectations

                        2.  Impact can range from mild to profound

                                    a.  mild mentally retarded individual can live independently or with

                                         occasional help

                                    b.  profoundly retarded individuals show major delays in all areas of

                                         development and require basic care

            3.  Organic retardation-- due to biological cause (heredity, disease, injury)

                                    a.  Down syndrome-- extra 21st chromosome

                                    b.  phenylkentinuria (PKU)

                                    c.  maternal alcohol consumption

                        4.  Cultural-familial-- combination of low genetic potential and poor


                                    a.  more common to organic

                                    b.  due to combination of low genetic potential and understimulating


                        5.  Retarded children tend to follow same developmental sequence of non-retarded


                        6.  Can be later life deterioration of intellect

                        7.  Many retarded children grow into adults who are somewhat less successful

                             than nonretarded individuals

                                    a.  less skilled jobs

                                    b.  poorer adjustments in social relations

                                    c.  greater dependence on others

                                    d.  many do exceed stereotypes (e.g., are married, no need for public


            B.  Giftedness

                        1.  Use to be identified solely be IQ score (at least 130-140)

                        2.  Increased recognition that gifted children have special abilities rather than high

                             general intelligence

                        3.  High IQ or special abilities in areas valued by society

                        4.  Renzulli states giftedness combination of above-average ability, creativity, and

                             task commitment

                        5.  Gottfried’s research

                                    a.  identified potentially gifted children at age 18 months

                                    b.  longitudinal study showed that gifted children tend to have similar

                                         characteristics that distinguish them from average children

                                                characteristics include extensive vocabulary, rapid learning, good

                                                memory, longer attention span, excellent sense of humor,

                                                early interest in reading, maturity, perseverance

                        6.  Terman’s research

                                    a.  study of 1500 gifted children (Termites) begun in 1921

                                    b.  intellectually gifted children also better adjusted, better-than-average

                                         health, earlier puberty

                                    c.  destroyed stereotype of intellectuals as weak and frail

                        7.  Gifted students who skip grades and entered U. of Washington early were

                             socially mature and well adjusted

                        8.  As adults, Termites were different from average

                                    a.  lower rates of ill health, mental illness, alcoholism

                                    b.  impressive occupational achievements (professional and high-level

                                         business jobs)

                                    c.  contrary to stereotype, gifted do not tend to burn out early   

                        9.  Some with high IQs are unhappy and socially isolated

                        10.  Most well-adjusted adults had highly-educated parents who offer love and

                                                            intellectual stimulation


IX.  What is creativity?

            A.  What is Creativity?

                        1.  Creativity-- ability to produce novel, appropriate, and valued responses

                        2.  Divergent thinking-- variety of solutions when there is no one correct answer

                        3.  Convergent thinking-- finding the one “best” answer

                        4.  A minimum of intelligence is probably required for creativity in that highly

                             creative people rarely have below-average IQs

            B.  Creativity in Childhood and Adolescence

                        1.  Gifted children tend to engage in more fantasy or pretend play

                        2.  Influenced by different factors than IQ

                        3.  Genetic factors do not appear to impact creativity

                        4.  Gifted children appear to value nonconformity and independence

                        5.  Factors that impact creativity quite distinct from the cognitive abilities

                             measured on IQ tests

                        6.  Developmental course of creativity less predictable

                                    a.  preschool children highly original may restrict creativity in school-age

                                    b.  creativity may emerge in adolescence

            7.  Non-IQ tests may predict creative accomplishments

            8.  Creativity may require distinct skills and experiences

                        9.  Talent and motivation both important

                                    a.  key is to be in environment that recognizes, values, and nurtures


                                    b.  some parents may be too pushy

                                    c.  prolonged practice may be critical

                                    d.  motivation may play a role

            C.  Creative Achievement in Adulthood

                        1.  Creative production usually greatest from 20s to early 40s in most fields

                        2.  Actual peak times of creativity vary by field

                                    a.  productivity of scholarship well into old age

                                    b.  productivity in the arts often peaks in 30s and 40s

                        3.  Creative behavior possible, but less frequent in later life

                        4.  Simonton suggests creativity requires both ideation and elaboration

                                    a.  ideation-- generating creative ideas

                                    b.  elaboration-- executing ideas to real problems

                                    c.  older people may use up stock of potential ideas