Stress, Coping, and Health
1. Describe the biopsychosocial model and define health psychology.
2. Define stress and discuss the severity of stress and the impact of minor stressors.
3. Describe the subjective nature of our appraisals of stress.
4. Describe the four principal types of stress discussed in the text.
5. Identify the three basic types of conflict, and discuss which types are most troublesome.
6. Summarize evidence on life change as a form of stress.
7. Identify some common emotional responses to stress, and discuss the effects of arousal on task performance.†††
8. Describe the fight-or-flight response and the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome.
9. Discuss the two major pathways along which the brain sends signals to the endocrine system in response to stress.
10. Describe and evaluate aggression and self-indulgence as behavioral responses to stress.
11. Distinguish between defensive coping and constructive coping as mechanisms for dealing with stress; discuss the value of positive illusions.
12. Discuss the burnout syndrome, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other psychological problems that may result from stress.
13. Define psychosomatic diseases.
14. Describe the Type A behavior pattern and summarize the evidence linking it to coronary heart disease; identify the characteristic of Type A personality most directly linked to heart disease, hypertension, and early mortality.
15. Discuss and evaluate other evidence linking stress to immunosuppression and a variety of physical illnesses.
††† 1.††††††††††† Describe and evaluate the medical model of abnormal behavior.
††† 2.†††† Explain the most commonly used criteria of abnormality and complexities that arise in their interpretation.
††† 3.†††† List three stereotypes of people with psychological disorders.
††† 4.††††††††††† Summarize the Featured Study on the admission of pseudopatients to mental hospitals.
††† 5.†††† List the five diagnostic axes of DSM-IV.
††† 6.†††† Discuss estimates of the prevalence of psychological disorders.
††† 7.†††† List four types of anxiety disorders and describe the symptoms associated with each.
††† 8.†††† Discuss the contribution of biological, cognitive, and personality factors, conditioning, and stress to the etiology of anxiety disorders.
††† 9.††††††††††† Compare and contrast the three somatoform disorders and discuss their etiology.
† 10.††††††††††† Describe three dissociative disorders and discuss their etiology.
† 11.††††††††††† Describe the two major mood disorders and state their prevalence.
† 12.†††† Explain how genetic and neurochemical factors may be related to the development of mood disorders.
† 13.†††† Explain how cognitive factors, interpersonal factors, and stress may be related to the development of mood disorders.
† 14.††††††††††† Describe the general characteristics (symptoms) of schizophrenia.
† 15.††††††††††† Describe two classification systems for schizophrenic subtypes, and discuss the course of schizophrenia.
† 16.†††† Explain how genetic vulnerability, neurochemical factors, and structural abnormalities in the brain may contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia.
† 17.††††††††††† Summarize evidence on how neurodevelopmental factors, family dynamics and stress may be related to the development of schizophrenia.
† 18.†††† Discuss the nature of personality disorders, and describe the three broad clusters of such disorders.
† 19.††††††††††† Describe the antisocial personality disorder and discuss its etiology.
† 20.†††† Explain the legal concept of insanity and explain the grounds for involuntary commitment.
† 21.†††† Discuss the evidence on three issues related to culture and pathology.
† 22.†††† Explain how this chapter highlighted four of the textís organizing themes.
† 23.††††††††††† Describe the symptoms and medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
† 24.†††† Explain how genetic factors, personality, culture, family dynamics, and disturbed thinking may contribute to eating disorders.
† 25.†††† Discuss how mental heuristics can distort estimates of cumulative and conjunctive probabilities.
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
††† 1.†††† Identify the three major categories of therapy, and discuss how various demographic variables relate to the likelihood of treatment.
††† 2.††††††††††† Describe the various types of mental health professionals involved in the provision of therapy.
††† 3.†††† Explain the logic of psychoanalysis, and describe the techniques by which analysts probe the unconscious.
††† 4.†††† Discuss resistance and transference in psychoanalysis.
††† 5.†††† Identify the elements of therapeutic climate and discuss therapeutic process in Rogersí client-centered therapy.
††† 6.†††† Discuss the logic, goals, and techniques of cognitive therapy.
††† 7.††††††††††† Describe how group therapy is generally conducted, and identify some advantages of this approach.
††† 8.†††† Discuss Eysenckís critique of insight therapy and more recent evidence on the efficacy of insight therapies.
††† 9.††††††††††† Summarize the general principles underlying behavioral approaches to therapy.
† 10.††††††††††† Describe the goals and procedures of systematic desensitization and aversion therapy.
† 11.††††††††††† Describe the goals and techniques of social skills training and biofeedback.
† 12.†††† Discuss evidence on the effectiveness of behavior therapies.
† 13.††††††††††† Describe the principal categories of drugs used in the treatment of psychological disorders.
† 14.†††† Discuss evidence on the effects and problems of drug treatments for psychological disorders.
† 15.††††††††††† Describe ECT and discuss its therapeutic effects and its risks.
† 16.††††††††††† Summarize the concerns that have been expressed about the impact of managed care on the treatment of psychological disorders.
† 17.†††† Discuss the pros and cons of empirically validated treatments.
† 18.†††† Discuss the merits of blending or combining different approaches to therapy; define eclectic.
† 19.††††††††††† Describe the Featured Study on combining insight therapy and medication.
† 20.†††† Discuss the barriers that lead to underutilization of mental health services by ethnic minorities and possible solutions to the problem.
† 21.†††† Explain why people grew disenchanted with mental hospitals, and describe the community mental health movement.
† 22.††††††††††† Describe the deinstitutionalization trend and evaluate its effects.
† 23.†††† Explain how this chapter highlighted two of the textís unifying themes.
† 24.†††† Discuss when and where to seek therapy, and the potential importance of a therapistís sex, theoretical approach, and professional background.
25. Summarize what one should look for in a prospective therapist and what one should expect out of therapy.
† 26.†††† Explain how placebo effects and regression toward the mean can complicate the evaluation of therapy.
††† 1.††††††††††† Describe how various aspects of physical appearance may influence our impressions of others.
††† 2.†††† Explain how schemas, stereotypes, and other factors contribute to selectivity in person perception.
††† 3.†††† Explain what attributions are and why and when we make them.
††† 4.††††††††††† Describe the distinction between internal and external attributions, and summarize Kelley and Weinerís theories of attribution.
††† 5.††††††††††† Describe several types of attributional bias and cultural variations in attributional tendencies.
††† 6.††††††††††† Summarize evidence on the roles of physical attractiveness, similarity, and reciprocity in attraction.
††† 7.††††††††††† Describe the components and dimensions of attitudes and the correlates of attitude strength.
††† 8.†††† Discuss the relations between attitudes and behavior.
††† 9.††††††††††† Summarize evidence on source factors, message factors, and receiver factors that influence the process of persuasion.