Quiz 2: Chapters 2 (continued) and Chapter 10

Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. IQ score, age, weight, grade point average, and income are all examples of

a. constants
b. correlations
c. statistics
d. variables

____ 2. A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the rats' maze-running performance is the

a. dependent variable
b. correlated variable
c. control variable
d. independent variable

____ 3. One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is

a. the inability to generate cause-and-effect conclusions
b. the length of time necessary to complete the study
c. the fact that only one variable can be studied at a time
d. the artificial, contrived situations in which experiments are often conducted

____ 4. The standard deviation is a measure of

a. central tendency
b. the degree of relationship between two variables
c. the difference between the largest and smallest scores in a data set
d. the amount of variability in a data set

____ 5. As interest rates increase, house sales decline, indicating

a. a negative correlation between the two variables
b. a direct correlation between the two variables
c. a positive correlation between the two variables
d. no correlation between the two variables

____ 6. Placebos are used in research to control for

a. nontreatment effects
b. the subjects' expectations about treatment
c. secondary drug effects
d. random fluctuations in the independent variable

____ 7. The tendency for survey subjects to provide answers that place them in a favorable light is referred to as

a. sampling bias
b. response stereotyping
c. a placebo effect
d. socially desirable responding

____ 8. The abstract of a journal article provides

a. an overview of the research problem, relevant theories, and previous research
b. a description of the research methods used in the study
c. a concise summary of the entire article
d. a concise summary of the raw data and statistical analyses

____ 9. Phonemes are

a. the same across all languages
b. the smallest units of meaning in a spoken language
c. the smallest units of sound in a spoken language
d. rules for combining sounds to form meaning

____ 10. A "mental rule of thumb" for problem solving is referred to as

a. a heuristic
b. an algorithm
c. a mental set
d. a syllogism

____ 11. Cognition refers to

a. focusing awareness of a narrow range of stimuli or events
b. the use of language in a social context
c. widely shared beliefs that are transmitted socially across generations
d. the mental processes involved in acquiring and using knowledge

____ 12. Which of the following is not a cognitive activity?

a. remembering something
b. making a decision
c. solving a problem
d. blinking at something

____ 13. The smallest unit of meaning in a language is

a. the phoneme
b. the word
c. the phrase
d. the morpheme

____ 14. Syntax refers to rules for

a. arranging words into phrases and sentences
b. combining phonemes to form morphemes
c. using words symbolically
d. combining morphemes into words

____ 15. Babies start babbling at about what age?

a. birth
b. 1 month
c. 3 months
d. 6 months

____ 16. Functional fixedness refers to

a. continued use of problem solving strategies that have worked in the past
b. arriving at a particularly insightful solution to a problem
c. focusing on information that is irrelevant to the solution of the problem
d. not seeing a new function for a familiar object

____ 17. If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time you are evidencing

a. a delusion
b. an illusion
c. a mental set
d. a generic insight

____ 18. An algorithm is

a. the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by a problem solver
b. a guiding principle or "rule of thumb" used in problem solving
c. a methodical procedure for trying all possible solutions to a problem
d. equivalent to a heuristic

____ 19. Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which instances come to mind is called the

a. law of small numbers
b. representativeness heuristic
c. conjunction fallacy
d. availability heuristic

____ 20. The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to

a. ignore subjective probabilities when making decisions
b. estimate the probability of an event by judging the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
c. estimate the probability of an event based on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
d. ignore common stereotypes when estimating probabilities